By Ece Yalcin • Medical review by Kivanc Demir, MD on February 04, 2021

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Review 0
Average Cost 100000
Treatment Genel anestezi
Doctors & Clinics
Ozan Balik, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Ali Gurlek, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Serdar Nazif Nasir, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery

What is Sex Reassignment Surgery?
Gender reassignment surgeries, which are also referred to as gender reassignment surgery or gender reassignment, are comprehensive attempts to provide transsexual individuals with the anatomy appropriate to the sexual identity they feel.
Transsexuality is the situation where the person adopts a different gender identity by not feeling belonging to their physically and culturally assigned gender. ( Wikipedia )

Individuals who want to have the primary (genital organs) and secondary (voice tone, hair growth, breast, hip, etc.) gender characteristics of the opposite sex complete the gender transition by going through a number of processes that vary from country to country in order to get out of the spiritual conflict they experience. This transition can take the form of a gender change from male to female or from female to male. While these long sex change processes, which started with psychological support and hormone treatments, differ in transition from female to male (FTM) and from male to female (MTF), the operations performed also vary according to the personal preference of each individual. These operations performed under the management of plastic surgeons in the transition to female or male gender are successfully performed.

Everything You Need To Know About Transgender Surgery

Surgeries that can be performed within the body of the SSI with the report received from the sexual identity councils are usually performed by private doctors due to the intense bureaucracy stages and the inability to select the desired doctor team. The main factor affecting the prices of gender transition surgeries is the team that will undergo surgery. The chosen hospital and the city where it is located determines the cost of the surgery. The number of operations to be performed in the individual and the gender of the transgender person also affect the surgery fee.
While a legal procedure is not required for gender reassignment surgeries in many countries of Europe, a long process is required in order to have a gender reassignment surgery in our country. Candidates who want to have surgery:

  • Must be over the age of 18
  • Must be single
  • Must have the report of the sexual identity council proving the candidate's transsexuality in the process after the lawsuit filed for gender change request.
  • Must have a report showing that gender change is mandatory in terms of mental health
  • Must be permanently devoid of breeding ability  
The sexual identity council, which includes a psychiatrist, geneticist, gynecologist, urologist, endocrinologist, plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery specialist, and a lawyer in addition to the general surgeon, manages the process of candidates who want to undergo gender transition surgery.
After making it clear that the individual is not homosexual, the psychiatrist, who is the chairman of the council, observes the behavior of the candidate for a period of sometimes up to two years.

In this process, the candidate individual starts to take testosterone for transition from female to male, estrogen and progesterone hormones for transition from male to female within the program prepared by the endocrinologist. The biggest advantage of giving hormones before surgery is that the treatment can be reversed in case of possible regret; After surgery, it is not possible to return.
Individuals who are satisfied with the change they have undergone after hormone therapy are given a transsexuality report for permanent transition and the operation process begins. In our country, there are sexual identity councils in various universities and research hospitals, especially Hacettepe University, Dokuz Eylül University, Cerrahpaşa Medical Faculty Hospital, Çapa Medical Faculty Hospital. Gender reassignment surgeries can be performed in these hospitals within the scope of SGK with the council report.
In trans men, thanks to the testosterone taken before the surgery, the voice begins to deepen and the hair growth in the body accelerates. The breast size also shrinks thanks to hormone supplements, making the surgery easier. The procedures performed in the first session of the surgery series for transition from woman to man are as follows:

  • Mastectomy (removal of breast tissue)
  • Hysterectomy (Removal of the uterus)
  • Oferectomy (removal of ovaries)

After these procedures, the reproductive ability permanently disappears and the transition is completed by creating a suitable size dildo and testicles with a new surgery within the following 6 months. The artificial penis created with the tissues taken from the arm, back or hip area of the individuals is supported with prosthesis for erection and the surgery is completed by adding prosthetic testicles.  
Estrogen and progesterone hormones, which are started to be taken before the surgery in trans women, reduce the hair growth by thinning the vocal cords, and besides this, the breasts grow. In female transition, which is easier than male transition, all of the primary sexual characteristics can be completed in the first session. Procedures that can be performed in a single session for male to female transition surgery:

  • Removal of the penis
  • Orchiectomy (removal of testicles)
  • Breast enlargement
  • Creation of an artificial vagina (a cavity is created inward from the removed penis and the inner and outer lips of the vagina are made around the protected penis head using testicular skin or large intestine)
  • Transferring the fat taken from the waist to the hip

After these procedures, which irreversibly remove the reproductive ability, the transition of the trans woman is completed. After that, other surgeries can be performed depending on the person's request. For example:

After gender transition surgeries that require a long and difficult process unlike simple aesthetic operations

  • There is an average hospital stay of one week
  • At least one month of rest is required to return to normal life.
  • Trans people have to use hormone supplements until menopause and andropause begins.    
Since the pleasure zone in the genitals is preserved for both sexes, the pleasure from sexual intercourse continues. While being ready for sexual intercourse after surgery can take 3-6 months for trans women, it sometimes takes 2 years before the dildo becomes fully functional in trans men.
In addition to possible surgical risks such as anesthesia allergy, bleeding and clotting, gender transition surgery also has other risks. Gender reassignment surgeries that give trans people the sexual identity they desire should always be carried out by a specialist team under appropriate conditions.

Since surgery prices can be higher than the selected doctors and the hospital where the surgeries will be performed, some individuals apply to inexperienced and unauthorized people and risk their lives by having surgery in unequipped clinics.
In our country, the council report requested and the long legal process awaiting the individual in order to have this surgery may also cause the tendency to surgical procedures called under the stairs. This situation also leads to negative consequences.
Mostly satisfactory results are obtained from the surgeries performed in fully equipped hospitals by expert and experienced teams.
The most likely risk after these surgeries is that a second surgery may be required because the genitals are not in the desired shape and size. Sometimes the created artificial organ may be deformed over time and a new operation may be needed.
Bruce Jenner, the father of the famous family of US show business, Kendall and Kylie Jenner, stepbrothers of the Kardashians, surprised everyone by deciding to become a woman at the age of 65 with surgery.
The life of the Danish painter Lili Elbe, considered one of the first transsexual individuals to undergo gender reassignment surgery in world history, was the subject of a book and then a movie starring Eddie Redmayne.
Jamie Clayton, co-star of Sense 8, one of Netflix's popular series, and Caroline Cossey, the first trans woman to be on the cover of Playboy, are among the world-renowned successful trans individuals.
In our country, the concept of transsexuality was first heard with Bülent Ersoy. Another transformation that aroused great interest and resonance in the past years has come from Rüzgar Erkoçlar.

Written on 01/07/2020


Last Update: 22/04/2021

Doctors & Clinics
Ozan Balik, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Ali Gurlek, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Serdar Nazif Nasir, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery


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3 Sex Reassignment Surgery Doctor
Ali Gurlek, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
Ozan Balik, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery
5 (3)
Ankara / Cinnah
Serdar Nazif Nasir, MD
Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery


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